Various possibilities for screening have become established to obtain information on a urinary tract infection as quickly and as reliably as possible, and also to reduce the number of negative cultures. The fluorescence flow cytometry technology makes it possible to report the majority of negative samples immediately to the doctor and to thus save this part of the culture workload.
The term ‘NRBC’ – ‘nucleated red blood cells’ – refers to precursor cells of the red blood cell lineage which still contain a nucleus. In healthy adults and older children, NRBC can only be found in blood-building bone marrow where they mature. Their appearance in peripheral blood points to extramedullary erythropoiesis or disruption of the blood - bone marrow barrier. Both possible scenarios can only be found in the course of a severe disease.
Direct detection of blood doping is relatively time-consuming and cost intensive. Some of the banned substances, such as recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), can hardly be distinguished from natural, endogenous hormones. This SEED describes how it is nevertheless possible to indirectly detect EPO-like doping with a modern haematology analyser like the XN-Series and reticulocyte parameters. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has played a leading role in the development of the Athlete Biological Passport for monitoring blood parameters such as RET#, RET%, HGB or HCT to ensure fairness among athletes.
The capability to count blood cells beyond the classical 5-part differential with high reliability is a challenge for modern haematology analysers. Sysmex offers the immature granulocyte count (IG) optionally on the XE-series and XT-series analysers. It is a standard diagnostic parameter on the XT-4000i, the XE-5000 and on the new XN-series as well.
Thrombocytopenia is a disorder in which there is an abnormally low amount of platelets. It can be life threatening and its detection and precise count is extremely important. The immature platelet fraction (IPF parameter) measures young, reticulated platelets in peripheral Blood, revealing if the bone marrow is producing or not.
XbarM is a real-time analyser monitoring available on Sysmex 5-part differential analysers, XN-L Series and XN-Series, which uses patient samples measured during the daily lab routine. Unlike internal quality control with stabilised material, the XbarM offers a long-term and continuous control process over the entire working day. Using the XbarM, the functionality of all connected reagents, e.g. before and after reagent replacement is monitored in an optimal manner as well as the analyser itself, e.g. before and after calibration or sensitivity adjustment. It does not require any extra input from the user because, once activated and set up correctly, it runs automatically in the background. This SEED article describes the different types of monitored parameters, recommended XbarM settings as well as tips for troubleshooting.
By combining the WDF and WPC channels both the sensitivity and specificity for detecting reactive and malignant cells is optimised. The measurement technology of XN-Series analysers detects the white blood cell functionality and the novel ‘Extended Inflammation Parameters’ let you quantify activated lymphocytes and neutrophils, and the results can be applied once a malignancy has been excluded.
Diffusamente impiegata in applicazioni di diagnostica e ricerca medica, la citometria a flusso offre anche soluzioni per la conta e l'analisi di flora microscopica come ad esempio lieviti, microrganismi marini, batteri, spore, ecc.