The determination of the ‘erythrocyte sedimentation rate’ (ESR) is a commonly performed laboratory test with a traditional role. In this article, the mechanism of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation is described, the standardised procedure is explained and we provide an update on the clinical interpretation of the ESR.
Synovial fluid is a viscous liquid found in the cavities of synovial joints. Several articular diseases are characterised by fluid accumulation in joints, so that arthrocentesis and morphological analysis are essential tools for differentiating a non-inflammatory arthropathy from an inflammatory arthropathy or an infectious disease. Cell count and differentiation are important diagnostic aspects in such patients. This first SEED article about synovial fluid summarises the typical characteristics and recommends procedures for specimen collection and handling.
Dieses White Paper betrachtet die Anatomie und Zusammensetzung der Synovialflüssigkeit und behandelt die Indikationen für ihre Analyse. Dazu werden Tipps und Tricks für die Probengewinnung erörtert sowie die üblichen labormedizinischen Analysen beschrieben.
To interpret the result of a blood count, a physician needs reference intervals from healthy people alongside the results of the analysis. The challenge is to define a ’healthy’ reference cohort. Common diseases with a long latency period, such as anaemia, are not recognised by individuals and therefore cannot be determined via questionnaires. The LAVE approach, explained in detail in the SEED, offers the possibility to exclude exactly these individuals from the reference cohort. The SEED lists reference intervals for adults for 105 parameters of XN-Series analysers based on a Dutch cohort.
Direct detection of blood doping is relatively time-consuming and cost intensive. Some of the banned substances, such as recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), can hardly be distinguished from natural, endogenous hormones. This SEED describes how it is nevertheless possible to indirectly detect EPO-like doping with a modern haematology analyser like the XN-Series and reticulocyte parameters. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has played a leading role in the development of the Athlete Biological Passport for monitoring blood parameters such as RET#, RET%, HGB or HCT to ensure fairness among athletes.
Thrombocytopenia is a disorder in which there is an abnormally low amount of platelets. It can be life threatening and its detection and precise count is extremely important. The immature platelet fraction (IPF parameter) measures young, reticulated platelets in peripheral Blood, revealing if the bone marrow is producing or not.